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Coastal Topics Catalog: Uplands

research projects
Constructing Probability Surfaces of Ecological Change in Coastal Aquatic Systems Through Restrospective Analysis of Phragmites australis Invasion and Expansion
The project will develop a unique analytical method, which involves constructing a probability surface, which can be used to identify thresholds for the transition of coastal marshes to dominance by Phragmites. Any set of conditions can then be placed upon the probability surface, allowing the statistical method to be used in a predictive fashion. The method could be applied to a wide variety of aquatic ecosystems for which state changes occur over either a spatial and temporal extent, or both.

Constructing Probability Surfaces of Ecological Change in Coastal Aquatic Systems Through Restrospective Analysis of Phragmites australis Invasion and Expansion
The project will develop a unique analytical method, which involves constructing a probability surface, which can be used to identify thresholds for the transition of coastal marshes to dominance by Phragmites. Any set of conditions can then be placed upon the probability surface, allowing the statistical method to be used in a predictive fashion. The method could be applied to a wide variety of aquatic ecosystems for which state changes occur over either a spatial and temporal extent, or both.

Determination of Canopy Cover along Headwater Wetlands
This project uses image processing and recognition software to compute the amount of canopy cover along headwater wetlands.

Determination of Minimal Instream Flow for Recreational Use
Recreational canoeists established a network of gages in the 1970’s that reflect stream levels on Virginia’s rivers. This network of gages depicts at what level canoeing would become impracticable. As such, this is a potential measure of minimal instream flow requirements for recreational boating. This project uses the established network of gages and GPS technology to tie them to elevation benchmarks in order to relate the depicted stream levels to USGS stream gage data.

Development of a Draft Woody Depressional Wetland HGM Model for the Coastal Plain of Virginia
This project takes the preliminary information developed in completion of the Development of a Forested Depressional Wetland HGM Model project and expands it to a Draft Woody Depressional Wetland HGM Model. The project expands the preliminary reference set from 8 sites to approximately 24 sites and coordinates the model development with similar efforts in Maryland and Delaware.

Development of HGM Models for Wetlands Management in Virginia
This project initiated the development of HGM models in Virginia by 1) a planning exercise to identify and prioritize the needs for HGM model development in Virginia; 2) an initial effort to develop a Hardwood Mineral Flat model; 3) initial data collection on potential reference sites for other models; 4) a program to integrate remote sensing into HGM based wetland assessments; and 5) a protocol program to validate regional HGM models.

Draft Woody Depression Wetland HGM Model for the Coastal Plain of Virginia
The Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) method for modeling and assessing wetlands is an emerging standard for many federal and state agencies. Implementation of this approach in Virginia is currently hampered by a lack of appropriate models. This project developed a draft Woody Depressional Wetland HGM model for the coastal plain of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Ecological Characterization of Stormwater Detention Ponds in Virginia's Coastal Plain
The Ecological Characterization of Stormwater Detention Ponds in Virginia’s Coastal Plain project has two main objectives: 1) to develop a database of existing stormwater ponds, both wet and dry, and 2) to characterize these ponds as to their design and their ability to perform the wetland functions of habitat, sediment stabilization and water quality. Underlying objectives of this project included 1) the selection of a database application that can be utilized on the Internet and an evaluation tool for these specific wetland functions, 2) perform the field assessments, and 3) display the data through an interactive web page.

Increasing the probability of success in restored forested wetlands
The goal of this project was to investigate whether seedlings from parent populations adapted to waterlogged sites have a higher probability of survival than seedlings from upland sites when grown under waterlogged conditions.

Initiating Development of a Forested Headwater Wetland HGM Model for Wetlands Management in Virginia
The Forested Headwater Wetland Subclass is unique in that it is partially defined in law by the average current flow (or lack thereof) continued in the associated stream. This project initiates the development of an HGM model for the Forested Headwater Wetland subclass by determining the extent of these wetlands systems as related to annual average stream flow. The final report will include development of a preliminary definition of Forested Headwater Wetlands for HGM model development and preliminary data collection of potential HGM variables.

Intermediate Development of a Forested Headwater Wetland HGM Model for Wetlands Management in Virginia
The Forested Headwater Wetland Subclass is unique in that it is partially defined in law by the average current flow (or lack thereof) in the associated stream. This project continues the development of an HGM model for the Forested Headwater Wetland subclass by determining the extent of these wetlands systems as related to annual average stream flow. The final report will include development of a preliminary definition of Forested Headwater Wetlands for HGM model development and preliminary data collection of potential HGM variables.

Managing Invasive Aquatic Plants in a Changing System: Strategic Consideration of Ecosystem Services
A special section paper of Conservation Biology addressing climate change stress on coastal plant communities and various associated invasives.

Oldest Operating Wetland Mitigation Bank in the US
This report is a review of the Goose Creek Wetland Bank in Chesapeake, Virginia. The paper focuses on its development and utilization.

Rappahannock County Riparian Buffer Study
Riparian buffers are important zones for maintaining water quality and providing critical habitat. Rappahannock County has a rural landscape that presents the opportunity to record baseline conditions of riparian buffers. This study involved analyzing a small drainage area in the Upper Thornton River watershed to offer guidance on targeting riparian buffer restoration. Methods included using aerial imagery and GIS to delineate land uses and buffer cover in 100 ft. buffers around streams. Results indicate that in the study area 51% of the riparian lands potentially need some restoration and several recommendations for riparian buffer restoration were made in the final report.Final Report: http://ccrm.vims.edu/projreps/final_report_std.pdf

Riparian Forest Buffer Restoration Targeting for the Rappahannock River Watershed
This wetlands technical report describes targeting protocol for the Rappahannock River watershed and how it can provide rankings of forest buffer restoration.

Riparian Restoration
A wetlands technical report that discusses restoration efforts of riparian forest systems and subsequent management policies.

Status and Trends of Phragmites australis Invasion within Constructed Wetlands of Virginia
Research that centers around Phragmites and its management in Virginia.

science publications
Advances in Wetland Status and Trends Monitoring - Cumulative Error Comparisons
This paper examines the limitations of certain wetland mapping techniques with special emphasis on cumulative error problems.

Development of Forested Depressional Wetland HGM model for wetlands management in Virginia
The Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) method for modeling and assessing wetlands is an emerging standard for many federal and state agencies. Implementation of this approach in Virginia is currently hampered by a lack of appropriate models. This project initiated the preliminary development of a Forested (Woody) Depressional Wetland HGM model in the coastal plain of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Headwater and Floodplain Wetlands in Virginia
This is the second report to provide a summary of currently available information pertinent to legislative debates about wetlands regulations in Virginia.

Plant Adaptations to Saturated Soils and the Formation of Hypertrophied Lenticels and Adventitious Roots in Woody Species
A wetlands technical report on determining the extent of forested wetlands using analysis of roots and hypertrophied lenticels.

Plowing Through the Muck: A Review of Wetland Assessment/Evaluation Methods
A wetlands technical report reviewing various assessment and evaluation methods.

Restoration and Creation of Forested Wetlands: A Guide
A wetlands technical report that describes types of forested wetlands in Virginia as well as their protection and mitigation.

Tidal Freshwater Swamps of the Lower Chesapeake Bay
A wetlands technical report describing flooding regime and vegetation of tidal freshwater swamps of the lower Chesapeake Bay.

Tidal Wetland Values
A wetlands technical report describing the ecological services of tidal wetlands.

Wetland Mitigation
A wetlands technical report describing wetland mitigation and mitigation banking.

Wetland Seed Banks: Research in Natural and Created Wetlands
A wetlands technical report describing the historical perspective of seed banks and their use in research and created wetlands.

Wetlands Management Handbook
Information on wetlands ordinance, dunes, guidelines, mitigation policies, permits, and marinas for Virginia.

Wetlands of Virginia: total, isolated and headwater
A special CCRM report that focuses on various types of wetlands - especially isolated and headwater wetlands.

map products
Coastal Maritime Forests in Virginia - Delineation and Distribution
This project delineates coastal maritime forests using remote sensing techniques. Fieldwork conducted by the Department of Forestry validates the delineation. A website will be generated to display mapped forest cover and report the distribution of coastal maritime forest habitat in Virginia on a county by county basis.

Maritime Forest Project
The purpose of this project were to use remote sensing techniques to delineate existing coastal maritime forests, as well as compute, on a county-by-county basis, the amount of maritime forest cover present in each coastal locality, and the extent of maritime forests located within conservation lands.

Tidal Marsh Inventory
GIS coverage of all marshes delineated in the Tidal Marsh Inventory Series.

Tidal Wetlands Assessment - York River Assessment
This study provides baseline data on the extent and condition of 2,188 tidal wetlands within the York River Watershed. These data provide valuable information in identifying wetland restoration opportunities, evaluating appropriate mitigation ratios, and determining cumulative impacts within a watershed.

Tidal Wetlands Multi-Level Assessment
This includes reports, datasets and ArcIMS projects for Level I and II protocols within the Indian River, DE; Nanticoke River, MD, and York River, VA.

Wetlands Mitigation Targeting Tool
This tool uses GIS to target sites in the landscape suitable for wetland creation. It has application for wetland restoration or mitigation projects. The tool outputs selected sites based on five suitability parameters: presence of hydric soils, presence of hydrology, adjacency to existing wetlands, existing landuse and the opportunity for landscape conversion, and proximity to designated conservation areas.

training

An Introduction to the Role of Riparian Buffers in Improving Environmental Quality Functions and Values
Curriculum for a multi-day intensive course was prepared for a specific target audience of natural resource managers and professional staff. This grant supported the development of an interdisciplinary curriculum for the first day of the course series to be sponsored jointly by CCRM and the Chesapeake Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (CBNERR). This course series will provide scientific background for existing regulations as well as training and assistance for effective enforcement, improved compliance and more effective communication with the regulated public about coastal riparian buffers and the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act. Final report http://ccrm.vims.edu/pubs/RiparianBuffersFinalReport.pdf

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