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resource management

Coastal Topics Catalog: Resource Management

research projects
A Critique of Existing Methodologies for Developing Shoreline Management Plans for Local Governments
This project evaluates costs and benefits of two different approaches for providing guidance to local governments on shoreline protection strategies. Stakeholders in the process were surveyed for input and a review of consistency, efficiency and product accuracy was undertaken.

A Survey of the Effectiveness of Existing Marsh Toe Protection Structures in Virginia
This is a project with the goal of evaluating erosion control effectiveness of existing shoreline treatments that incorporate a living shoreline component in their design.

Albemarle-Pamlico Project Coordination
This project staffs the coordination of the Virginia and North Carolina estuary programs by placing an individual in the DCR office in Franklin, VA. The project involves intergovernmental coordination and community outreach.

Constructing Probability Surfaces of Ecological Change in Coastal Aquatic Systems Through Restrospective Analysis of Phragmites australis Invasion and Expansion
The project will develop a unique analytical method, which involves constructing a probability surface, which can be used to identify thresholds for the transition of coastal marshes to dominance by Phragmites. Any set of conditions can then be placed upon the probability surface, allowing the statistical method to be used in a predictive fashion. The method could be applied to a wide variety of aquatic ecosystems for which state changes occur over either a spatial and temporal extent, or both.

Constructing Probability Surfaces of Ecological Change in Coastal Aquatic Systems Through Restrospective Analysis of Phragmites australis Invasion and Expansion
The project will develop a unique analytical method, which involves constructing a probability surface, which can be used to identify thresholds for the transition of coastal marshes to dominance by Phragmites. Any set of conditions can then be placed upon the probability surface, allowing the statistical method to be used in a predictive fashion. The method could be applied to a wide variety of aquatic ecosystems for which state changes occur over either a spatial and temporal extent, or both.

Current Trends in Ecologic-Economic Valuation of Wetlands
The purposes of the report are to outline techniques in assigning economic value to wetlands, and economic valuation to natural resources along with the problems associated with the process.

Development of a Nontidal Inventory and Monitoring Strategy for Virginia - Phase I: Level I Statewide Inventory and Level II Coastal Plain Assessment
Two GIS based tools have been developed to assist with the selection of sites appropriate for the creation of wetlands. Construction of wetlands for environmental enhancement or mitigation poses great challenges in a rapidly developing landscape. Site selection in the Coastal Plain of Virginia is constrained as much by existing development as hydro-geomorphic processes.

Development of a Virginia Nontidal Wetlands Database
This tool uses GIS to target sites in the landscape suitable for wetland creation. It has application for wetland restoration or mitigation projects. The tool outputs selected sites based on five suitability parameters: presence of hydric soils, presence of hydrology, adjacency to existing wetlands, existing landuse and the opportunity for landscape conversion, and proximity to designated conservation areas.

Development of DO TMDL for Onancock Creek
Low dissolved oxygen (DO) is often observed in eutrophic waters that receive excessive nutrients and organic matter. DO levels below state water quality standards require the development of a total maximum daily load (TMDL) to determine the reductions needed to meet the water quality standard. The North Branch of Onancock Creek, located on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay, is impaired for DO. This project involves the development of a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model to determine various scenarios for source allocations between point and nonpoint sources.

Development of No Discharge Zones in Virginia Tidal Waters Phase I
The Commonwealth of Virginia has no regulations to restrict the discharge of waste from vessels in state waters. This project reviews the regulatory statues of enforcing no discharge zones.

Development of Nontidal Wetlands Inventory, Functional Assessment, and Monitoring Strategy for Virginia
This project develops and implements a three level assessment protocol for nontidal wetlands in Virginia. This is the first phase of a series of projects which are intended to provide assessments across all of Virginia. In this project a level I – GIS based assessment will be completed on all wetlands mapped by the National Wetlands Inventory in Virginia. Level II assessments involving field assessments of stressors will be initiated in the coastal plain of Virginia. Level III assessments will involve detailed analysis of habitat and water quality functions on selected sites.

Draft Woody Depression Wetland HGM Model for the Coastal Plain of Virginia
The Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) method for modeling and assessing wetlands is an emerging standard for many federal and state agencies. Implementation of this approach in Virginia is currently hampered by a lack of appropriate models. This project developed a draft Woody Depressional Wetland HGM model for the coastal plain of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Ecological and Socioeconomic Indicators for Integrated Assessment of Aquatic Ecosystems of the Atlantic Slope
Project objectives are to 1) develop and test ecological and socioeconomic indicators of aquatic resource condition, construct models that use environmental, geographic, and stressor data to predict indicator responses, and use models to link upstream watersheds and downstream estuaries. 2) Develop large scale measures for characterizing landscape attributes and land-use patterns to serve as predictors of a range of environmental conditions. 3) Deliver a nested suite of indicators to managers, where the implications of aggregating models at various scales are considered, and for which reliability is known. This is a collaborative project with Pennsylvania State University, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, East Carolina University, and the Environmental Law Institute. Final report: http://ccrm.vims.edu/projreps/eagles_02-03.pdf

Ecological Characterization of Stormwater Detention Ponds in Virginia's Coastal Plain
The Ecological Characterization of Stormwater Detention Ponds in Virginia’s Coastal Plain project has two main objectives: 1) to develop a database of existing stormwater ponds, both wet and dry, and 2) to characterize these ponds as to their design and their ability to perform the wetland functions of habitat, sediment stabilization and water quality. Underlying objectives of this project included 1) the selection of a database application that can be utilized on the Internet and an evaluation tool for these specific wetland functions, 2) perform the field assessments, and 3) display the data through an interactive web page.

Ecosystem Approaches to Aquatic Health Assessment: Linking Subtidal Habitat Quality, Shoreline Condition and Estuarine Fish Communities
This project tests the use of side-scan sonar technology as a tool to define subtidal nearshore habitat in two representative watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay.

Enhancement of Aquaculture Management in Virginia
This project is intended to develop policy and management recommendations for the Virginia General Assembly and VMRC regarding aquaculture in estuarine and coastal waters.

Enhancement of Virginia’s Nontidal Wetlands Regulatory Program
This project concludes the work on developing protocols for the nontidal wetlands program, by revising the protocols based on preliminary tests, and working with the Department of Environmental Quality staff to move the protocols into regular implementation.

Enhancement of Wetlands Management in Virginia
This project was designed to develop and implement monitoring and analysis protocols to support the nontidal wetlands management program in Virginia.

Field Inventory of Phragmites
The delineation of Phragmites along tidal shorelines is being collected in conjunction with data for the Shoreline Situation Reports. Analysis of status and trends in distribution will be used in managementand policy recommendations.

Habitat Restoration Options for Generating Stations Virginia Dominion Power
Focus for this project was based on three predominant types of aquatic habitat restoration: seagrass, oyster reef and salt marsh. Advancing specific restoration options as part of compliance plans for generating stations requires technically sound “scaling” to link impingement and entrainment losses to restoration project outcomes. Status of restoration scaling for environmental compensation in estuarine environments was reviewed.

Increasing the probability of success in the construction of marshes in coastal Virginia
Habitat functions of a constructed tidal marsh and two adjacent natural tidal marshes were compared between marshes and with similar data collected in the same marshes seven years earlier.

Influence of Land Use on Macrobenthic Communities in Nearshore Estuarine Habitats
Our objective was to examine the influence of shoreline alteration and watershed land use on nearshore macrobenthic communities using established indices for related estuarine environments.

Initiating Development of a Forested Depressional Wetland HGM Model for Wetland Management in Virginia
This project initiated the preliminary development of a Forested (Woody) Depressional Wetland HGM model in the coastal plain of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Initiating Development of a Forested Headwater Wetland HGM Model for Wetlands Management in Virginia
The Forested Headwater Wetland Subclass is unique in that it is partially defined in law by the average current flow (or lack thereof) continued in the associated stream. This project initiates the development of an HGM model for the Forested Headwater Wetland subclass by determining the extent of these wetlands systems as related to annual average stream flow. The final report will include development of a preliminary definition of Forested Headwater Wetlands for HGM model development and preliminary data collection of potential HGM variables.

Integration of ecological & socioeconomic indicators for estuaries and watersheds of the Atlantic Slope
The goal of this project was to develop a set of indicators for coastal systems that are ecologically appropriate, economically reasonable, and relevant to society to further inject science into natural resources management decisions. This suite of indicators can contribute to integrated assessments of the health and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems in the region.

Intermediate Development of a Forested Headwater Wetland HGM Model for Wetlands Management in Virginia
The Forested Headwater Wetland Subclass is unique in that it is partially defined in law by the average current flow (or lack thereof) in the associated stream. This project continues the development of an HGM model for the Forested Headwater Wetland subclass by determining the extent of these wetlands systems as related to annual average stream flow. The final report will include development of a preliminary definition of Forested Headwater Wetlands for HGM model development and preliminary data collection of potential HGM variables.

Internet based decision tool for siting wetland restoration sites in Hampton Roads, VA
This project uses the protocol and findings of the Advanced Identification of Wetland Restoration sites to develop an interactive, web-based management tool to assist regulators, developers, and project agents in location of potential compensatory mitigation sites in Hampton Roads.

Jurisdictional Environmental Coordination: Gloucester County, Virginia
This projects maps spatial boundaries of various state, local, and federal regulatory programs to evaluate the extent of regulatory overlap. The project uses Gloucester County for a pilot study.

Living Shorelines:Evaluation Criteria and Monitoring Approaches to Erosion Control
This is a project funded by the Keith Campbell Foundation/Virginia Institute of Marine Science with the goal of evaluating erosion control effectiveness of existing shoreline treatments that incorporate a living shoreline component in their design. These are mostly marsh toe protection structures and low profile riprap shallow water sills. Both of these approaches, in theory, preserve wetland habitat while attenuating shoreline erosion. The project involves development of evaluation criteria for use in field survey, identification of existing

Maintenance of Virginia Nontidal Wetlands Database
Maintenance of a website-accessible database for nontidal wetlands permitting in Virginia. For more information, please see http://ccrm.vims.edu/wetlands/nontidal_impacts.html

Monitoring of Thin-Layer Placement of Material Dredged from Bogues Bay Channel in Virginia
This project involves assessment of the impacts of spray dredging with disposal onto intertidal salt marshes in the Chincoteague Bay area. Plant communities and dredged material placement will be monitored over several years to develop management guidance for potential wider use of this disposal method. This project is the first phase of the study and incorporates the preliminary survey work and the initial post dredging followup.

Monitoring the Active Replenishment of Subsiding Habitat (MARSH) project
This project is an ongoing study of the Lee, Hill, and Sweet Hall marshes in the Pamunkey River. The study focuses on the documentation of the relationship between marsh surface elevation and the marsh plant community. The project includes experimental manipulation of the study sites involving a variety of methods for raising the elevation of the marsh. Evaluation of the potential for controlling the composition of the marsh plant community by incremental additions of material to the marsh surface is underway. Other studies include the community structure of birds, fish, insects, and benthos as well as detailed water quality and elevation monitoring. An interim report can be found at http://ccrm.vims.edu/MarshNewsletter.pdf

Occurrence of the invasive weedy species Phragmites australis adjacent to agricultural lands and its response to conservation reserve program (CRP) control methods
This project focuses on developing a model of Phragmitesinvasiveness at upland/wetland interfaces by determining the mechanism of invasion, competition and spread of Phragmites. With respect to weed control, one of our applied hypotheses is that CRP sites enhance N removal prior to groundwater discharge to the wetland-upland interface, and that best management practices like buffer strips are environmentally sound forms of controlling Phragmites invasion and spread.

On-going Development of Nontidal Wetland Inventory, Functional Assessment, and Monitoring Strategy for Virginia
This project develops and implements a three level assessment protocol for nontidal wetlands in Virginia. This is the first phase of a series of projects which are intended to provide assessments across all of Virginia. In this project a level I – GIS based assessment will be completed on all wetlands mapped by the National Wetlands Inventory in Virginia. Level II assessments involving field assessments of stressors will be initiated in the coastal plain of Virginia. Level III assessments will involve detailed analysis of habitat and water quality functions on selected sites. Preliminary site selection in the coastal plain will be undertaken in this project phase.

Pamunkey Marshes
This project evaluated several methods to preserve the character of valuable tidal freshwater wetlands in the face of increasing relative sea level, by controlled additions to marsh surface elevations.

Potential Response to Sea Level Rise
This project was undertaken to assess the likelihood that coastal areas in Virginia, potentially at risk from sea level rise, would be defended in some way. For purposes of this study, coastal localities along the Atlantic Ocean and Chesapeake Bay shorelines were considered.

Recommendations for Implementing the Tidal Wetlands Mitigation-Compensation Policy
We recommend that VMRC and wetlands boards consider both vegetated and non-vegetated wetlands in implementing the no-net-loss policy.

Refinement and validation of a multi-level assessment method for Mid-Atlantic tidal wetlands
This project will build upon work conducted under the “Development of an Inventory and Multi-Level Assessment Method for Virginia, Maryland and Delaware Tidal Wetlands” project currently being conducted by CCRM and collaborative partners from the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, and Maryland Department of Natural Resources. The Level III assessment protocol developed under this ongoing effort will be utilized in this study to sample approximately 20 additional estuarine tidal wetland sites within the York River, Virginia and Indian River, Delaware watersheds. Additional data collected at these sites will be used to help validate the Level I and Level II condition assessment models developed under previous research efforts. We hope that the development, refinement and validation of a multi-level assessment model will result in its implementation by state and local environmental management and regulatory agencies across the Delmarva region.

Remote Sensing of Impervious Surface Cover, VIMS Campus
This activity used low altitude color and infra-red imagery to determine the percent of impervious versus pervious surface within VIMS' owned property.

Remote Sensing of Natural Areas: Procedures and Considerations for Assessing Stress and Pollution
A technical report on wetland vegetation stress and how it can be measured using visible and IR wavelengths.

Riparian Forest Buffer Restoration Targeting for the Rappahannock River Watershed
This wetlands technical report describes targeting protocol for the Rappahannock River watershed and how it can provide rankings of forest buffer restoration.

Riparian Restoration
A wetlands technical report that discusses restoration efforts of riparian forest systems and subsequent management policies.

Sand Dunes and Beaches in Virginia: Science and Management
An article that discusses the importance of beaches and dunes in Virginia along with science and management implications.

Seasonal Monitoring, Fecal Coliform Loads, Lynnhaven River System
A collecting and sampling program was developed for fecal coliform following runoff events in the Lynnhaven River System. This information will be used to support water quality and TMDL modeling.

Shallow Water Resource Use Conflicts: Clam Aquaculture and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation
This project was designed to assess the potential conflict of subaqueous bottom land use by SAV and hard clam aquaculture in a region of current intensive aquaculture.

Shellfish TMDLs
There were two important goals for this project, including the assembly and compilation of digital data for the Coastal Plain and tidal waters of Virginia, and the categorization of the Division of Shellfish Sanitation (DSS) shellfish growing areas to determine if some are similar enough for water quality models to be effectively transferred from the modeled growing areas to other areas. This report summarizes the data and statistical analyses and discusses the results.

Six Fish and 600,000 Thirsty Folks - A Fishing Moratorium on American Shad Thwarts a Controversial Municipal Reservoir Project in Virginia
A fishing moratorium on American shad thwarts a controversial municipal reservoir project in Virginia

Sturgeon Spawning Habitat on the James and Appomattox Rivers/Side Scan Sonar
This project’s objectives are to conduct bottom mapping of potential Atlantic sturgeon spawning reaches using sidescan sonar to ascertain the presence and location of essential spawning habitat (e.g. gravel beds) in the James and Appomattox rivers. Areas surveyed include the upper reaches of the James River from Shirley Plantation to Richmond; as well as the Appomattox River from the mouth to the Colonial Heights Bridge.

The Stability of Living Shorelines - An Evaluation
This project provides scientific rational for the expanded use of soft structure stabilization for tidal shoreline protection. A series of tests was performed to develop a profile of landscape suitability for soft shoreline stabilization. Analyses were performed on data describing shoreline condition. Shoreline change mapping in selected study areas determine effectiveness of shoreline treatments. An environmental assessment combines various data to develop the shoreline profile for effective soft stabilization and develops a spatial suitability model. Final products include a report and outreach material posted to a dedicated website to be announced.

The Use of Thermal Imagery in the Aerial Survey of Panthers (and other animals) in the Florida Panther Wildlife Refuge and the Big Cypress National Preserve
A study using thermal imagery in the use of tracking and surveying Florida panthers is discussed.

Tidal Wetlands Management Technical Support
This project has been a continuing grant renewed annually to support the advisory service provided by the Wetlands Program to the Tidal Wetlands Management program. In particular this grant helps fund the travel costs for site visits and meeting attendance by staff scientists, the publication costs for the Wetlands Newsletter,and some of the expenses of maintaining the tidal wetlands permit data base on line on the Center’s web site at http://www.vims.edu/ccrm/wetlands/newpermits.html Funding was provided to support production of the following

York River Assessment Level I - Final Report
A final report for a project describing the development of a tidal wetland inventory and assessment for the York River Watershed in Virginia.

York River Water Trails Guide
This project assists in the development of basemaps for a water trail guide along the mainstem of the York River. The project is the downstream continuation of a previous guide which was developed for the Mattaponi and Pamunkey Rivers. The guide will highlight special natural features along the river as well as historic cultural sites and recreational facilities.

science publications
A Summary of Methods for Controlling Phragmites australis
A synopsis of the most common practices for eradicating P. australis. The purpose of this paper is not to endorse any one method but rather outline the options that are currently available.

Advances in Wetland Status and Trends Monitoring - Cumulative Error Comparisons
This paper examines the limitations of certain wetland mapping techniques with special emphasis on cumulative error problems.

Comment: Ecosystem services and invasive species management in a changing system
A rebuttal to a paper for strategic management that incorporates spatial and temporal variability in ecosystem services.

Compensatory Mitigation Within the Tidal Wetlands of Virginia
This article describes how compensatory mitigation works as a wetlands management tool.

Creating Tidal Marshes in the Chesapeake Bay
Creating Tidal Salt Marshes in Chesapeake Bay

Ecotourism: Tripping with Mother Nature
This article looks at the benefits of conservation while spending vacation time learning about nature and its preservation.

Estuarine surface water allocation: A case study on the interactive role of science in support of management
A novel approach to modeling entrainment probabilities applicable to situations that lack a locally validated hydrodynamic model. The science/management interplay ultimately resulted in surface water allocation strategies that are balances to society and the affected natural environment.

Evaluating Nearshore Communities as Indicators of Ecosystem Health. Estuarine Indicators Workshop Proceedings, In: Estuarine Indicators
Explains the effects that natural and anthropogenic stressors have on estuarine systems and the underlying causes of these effects, Offers guidelines and recommendations for the development and use of indicators for effective environmental management of estuarine ecosystems, Integrates assessment tools and techniques, scaling and variability, temporal trends for long-term studies, and environmental factors into a holistic approach to the subject.

Headwater and Floodplain Wetlands in Virginia
This is the second report to provide a summary of currently available information pertinent to legislative debates about wetlands regulations in Virginia.

Improving Siting and Construction Criteria for Oyster Reef Restoration
A publication that investigates oyster reef restoration efforts and ways to increase their success.

Integrated Guidance for Tidal Shorelines


Interagency Shoreline Management Consensus Document
Just prior to the actual initiation of this project the scope was narrowed from an interagency consensus effort to an intra-agency consensus effort. The project was intended to serve as a first step in future efforts to develop consensus guidance from a broad-based multi-agency integrated management perspective. The final project report was submitted in May 2005. The project report describes the consensus of the Wetlands Program on preferences in shoreline management approaches from an ecological perspective and includes some examples. Some scientific rationale is provided for the consensus thinking as well as a discussion of additional data and management tools to support shoreline decision-making. Final report: http://ccrm.vims.edu/projreps/shoreline_consensus_project_final.pdf

Interagency Shoreline Management Consensus Document
This project to develop a consensus position from a VIMS perspective, with funding from the Virginia Coastal Program, may serve as the initiation of an effort to develop consensus guidance on shoreline management that integrates the issues and concerns extant in the various independent management programs in Virginia.

Jurisdictional Coordination of State and Local Regulatory Programs
This projects maps spatial boundaries of various state, local, and federal regulatory programs to evaluate the extent of regulatory overlap. The project uses Gloucester County for a pilot study.

MARSH Project Newsletter
Scientists at VIMS are studying the effect of spray dredging a thin layer of material on the marsh surface in three locations. At the same time, other smaller scale experiments involving Koir logs and mesh were installed to test sediment trapping effectiveness.

Methods of Risk Analysis: Traditional and Ecological Approaches
This paper summarizes the approaches associated with the traditional methods of risk analysis and with ecological risk analysis.

Natural Resources Management In Coastal Virginia
A publication that discusses natural resource management implications in coastal Virginia. A Wetlands Technical Report.

Protected Areas Review Report. Review assessment of the protected areas in Dalmatia, Croatia; as part of the Coast project preparation for the UNDP/GEF grant proposal
In general, the purpose of the Project Coast is to provide a long-term direction and a common basis for the development and implementation of integrated and adaptive management plans, strategies and actions for environmental, social, cultural, economic and institutional sustainability. The guiding principles include integrated management, ecosystem-based management, sustainable development, precautionary approach, collaboration and adaptive management.

Public Policy: Integrated Approaches to Environmental Policy
A wetlands technical report that looks at two studies "Environmental Policy and the Role of the University" and "Environmental Policy: Contributions to Development and Implementation."

Recurrent Flooding Study in Tidewater Virginia
Recurrent flooding in Tidewater region of Virginia

Rivers & Coast: Integrated Coastal Management Decisions
This publication addresses integrated management on a smaller scale using the shoreline setting in a technical guidance document. A set of rationale will be provided for planning that includes common shoreline settings, as well as the ecological effects of options for shoreline use and protection.

Rivers & Coast: Living Shorelines
This article addresses why living shorelines are desirable and how they can benefit the homeowner's property.

Shoreline Situation Report Summary
A report on the shoreline situation reports for each locality and the methods used.

State of the York Watershed 2000
A publication that gives a report on the state of the York River watershed for the year 2000.

Think Green - A report on controlling shoreline erosion in the Chesapeake Bay
A publication to provide guidance in shoreline erosion along coastal areas. The encouragement of living shoreilnes is also addressed.

Tidal Freshwater Swamps of the Lower Chesapeake Bay
A wetlands technical report describing flooding regime and vegetation of tidal freshwater swamps of the lower Chesapeake Bay.

Tidewater Shoreline Erosion
A pdf of a document by Byrne and Anderson describing a shoreline erosion study in various localities of Virginia.

Tools of the Tidal Shoreline Management Trade
This report is designed to provide background information for evaluation of restoration options in mitigation situations for power generating stations in Virginia. The report provides 25 information on fish species that might be targeted for restoration activities. There are at least four general ways in which environmental compensation might occur associated with generating station cooling water intakes. These include: 1. direct replacement of lost organisms through culture and stocking programs; 2. enhancement of support-species populations to increase survival in stocks of impacted species; 3. direct enhancement of aquatic habitat to increase suitability for impacted species; and 4. enhancement of watershed conditions to generally improve local and downstream aquatic habitats.

US-Croatia workshop on Biocomplexity and Sustainable Ecosystem Management: Integrating natural, social and economic sciences
A proposal for a research and management project for sustainable uses of coastal systems. A workshop on this proposal was held in Croatia in 2002.

Use of Fully Biodegradable Panels to Reduce Derelict Pot Threats to Marine Fauna
Properly designed biodegradable panels appear to be a viable solution to mitigate adverse effects of derelict fishing pots.

Virginia Accomplishments Since the 2008 Climate Action Plan Release
Virginia accomplishments since the 2008 climate action plan release.

Virginia Coastal Resource Management Program Evaluation
This project involved development of the Virginia State of the Coast Report and an evaluation of the Virginia CRM program performance.

Virginia Wetlands Report
A list of Virginia Wetlands Report titles by topic and by year/volume.

Virginia's Coastal Program: Strategic Mapping of Management Goals
Specific goals of the program were investgated and mapped to see whether needs were being met for the Virginia.

Water!
A wetlands technical document describing the hydrologic cycle and various components of water movement.

Wetland Assessment Final Report
This is a final report of the development of a nontidal inventory and monitoring strategy for Virginia with various phases and levels.

Wetlands Guidelines Revisions
The Center for Coastal Resources Management, VIMS, has undertaken an initiative to provide integrated scientific guidance for better-informed decision-making regarding Virginia’s shoreline systems. We are working on a revised Wetland Guidelines document on a parallel track with our on-going comprehensive guidance initiative. The Wetlands Guidelines will be based upon the current scientific understanding of the ecology of wetlands and role in the landscape. The document will provide an overview of the state of the science and identify environmental preferences and supporting rationale for shoreline management options.

Wetlands Management Handbook
Information on wetlands ordinance, dunes, guidelines, mitigation policies, permits, and marinas for Virginia.

Wetlands Technical Reports
A link to various wetland technical reports published by CCRM.

map products
A Digital Environmental Sensitivity Map Atlas of the Chesapeake Bay
This project generates an interactive map atlas where a collection of GIS coverages can be queried to provide information to assist with an emergency hazardous waste or oil spill incident in the Chesapeake Bay. The project identifies an initial set of coverages, develops the interactive mapping application, and delivers the application to a web site hosted through the Chesapeake Bay Program's Web site. The intent is to alert emergency responders to environmentally sensitive regions within the Bay in the event of an accident.

Aquaculture Vulnerability Model
This study uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to model risks to shellfish aquaculture.

Assessment of Aquaculture Potential Within Baylor Grounds in the Lower Rappahannock River
The suitability for using public Baylor grounds for aquaculture is being explored through a GIS based analysis to determine if areas could support aquaculture given current condition and surrounding land-use.

Blue Infrastructure
The Blue Infrastructure online mapping tool integrates important aquatic resources that have been compiled for the coastal zone of Virginia using GIS technology.

Development of the Blue Portion of Virginia’s Blue/Green Infrastructure
New data developed in 2005 delineating the location of Virginia’s managed fisheries areas within the Bay have been added to this existing project. These include artificial reefs, sanctuaries, oyster reefs, and important finfish spawning grounds, among others. See project above for project and funding information. Link to project page at:http://ccrm.vims.edu/blueinfrastructure/bi_intro.html

Development of Tidal Wetland Inventory and Assessment for York River, Virginia Watershed
The objective of this project is to provide VMRC and DEQ the ability to report status and trends of estuarine wetlands along with cumulative impacts to this resource within the York River watershed. CCRM will utilize unique data sets obtained over the past 30 +/- years to provide a GIS-based analysis. In addition to the remotely sensed data outlined above, data previously collected by CCRM’s Comprehensive Coastal Inventory (CCI) will be incorporated into this assessment.

Development of TMDL Models for Shellfish Growing Waters
The development of shellfish TMDLs for the condemned areas on the 1998 303d list of impaired water bodies in Virginia is a joint effort between the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, the Division of Shellfish Sanitation, and the Department of Environmental Quality. This project involves development of the databases and report formats for these models. Project Update: There were two methodologies being used to determine source load allocations: watershed modelling and bacterial source tracking (BST). VIMS considers the watershed modeling to produce much more scientifically defensible results compared to the BST methods that DEQ is employing. After much discussion with DEQ, VIMS withdrew from the contract to develop bacterial TMDLs for shellfish growing waters.

Erosion Vulnerability Assessment Tool
EVA was designed as an online interactive map interface to illustrate the output of a highly integrated spatial data model that uses multiple data sets generated by various developers across the Chesapeake Bay region. The map outputs, which can be generated on the fly, will inform local planners where community infrastructure, cultural resources, and habitat are potentially at risk in the future.

GIS Conversion of VMRC Fisheries Management Areas
This project generates a GIS database of the location of Virginia’s managed fisheries areas within the Bay. Fisheries Management Areas (FMAs) within Virginia include artificial reefs, sanctuaries, oyster reefs, and important finfish spawning grounds, to name a few. They are the cornerstone of the Federal government’s Marine Managed Areas Inventory for Virginia. FMAs are surveyed, managed, and regulated by the Virginia Marine Resources Commission. In a cooperative project between VIMS and VMRC, these data have been converted to GIS formats for integration into other state and federal aquatic management initiatives. Among them is Blue Infrastructure, which collects and disseminates aquatic resource data in an interactive GIS format accessible through the Internet. Virginia’s FMA boundaries and database have been added to Blue Infrastructure as a project deliverable. Link to project page at:http://ccrm.vims.edu/blueinfrastructure/bi_intro.html

Integration of Protection Strategies to an Interactive GIS Database
This project enhances the existing online interactive GIS database known as OSCAR (Oil Spill Clean-up and Response Tool). Protective strategies are strategies that military or industrial installations file with the USCG for approval. They address protective measures planned in the event that an oil spill results from their operation. Protective strategies generally provide for the placement of booms and other devices to trap or retard the spread of oil to sensitive areas. The Coast Guard reviews and approves these strategies individually. In Virginia, no strategies have been submitted for review. Currently strategies from Baltimore district are being evaluated for inclusion. Where possible, protective strategies that are approved will be converted to a GIS theme for inclusion in OSCAR.

Marina Suitability
The tidal waters of Virginia were divided into 28 tiles for publication purposes. For each geographic boundary defined by a tile, there is one map for each major category: habitat, water quality, and design. A fourth map represents the cumulative landscape assessment of all three major criteria evaluated together.

Maritime Forest Project
The purpose of this project were to use remote sensing techniques to delineate existing coastal maritime forests, as well as compute, on a county-by-county basis, the amount of maritime forest cover present in each coastal locality, and the extent of maritime forests located within conservation lands.

Scanned Permit Archive
A database of VIMS shoreline permit applications from 1971 to present.

Shallow Water Use Conflicts Tool
This project uses GIS to evaluate conditions suitable for a variety of activities that may occur within the shallow water zone of the estuary.

Shallow Water Use Management Plan
This project used GIS to evaluate conditions suitable for a variety of activities that may occur within the shallow water zone of the estuary. Uses include SAV growth, aquaculture, crabbing, recreational fishing, etc. Nearly 20 uses were modeled. First use suitability models were developed, specifying conditions which must exist for a particular use to occur. Second, GIS algorithms are prepared to analyze available environmental data and indicate areas of suitable conditions for each use within the shallow water zone. Spatial models of use suitability were then combined according to a conflict prediction model to identify potential use conflicts. Final steps in the project will be identification of management issues and options, and development of policy recommendations.

Shellfish Aquaculture Suitability Model
Using GIS, a landscape model will be developed to delineate areas suitable for shellfish aquaculture. This model will consider physical and biological parameters associated with good shellfish growing areas, as well as upland land use considerations that can enhance or impede the success of an aquaculture operation. The model will be developed using GIS and final products will include an interactive mapping site to display the suitable areas. This project expands on earlier efforts to explore shallow water use conflicts in Virginia.

Shoreline Situation Report Charles City County, Virginia
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report Cities of Chesapeake, Norfolk, and Portsmouth
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report City of Hampton
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report City of Newport News
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report Fairfax, Arlington, Alexandria
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report Henrico Chesterfield Richmond
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report Isle of Wight
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report James City County
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report Northampton County
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report Prince George County
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report Prince William County
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report Surry County
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report Virginia Beach
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Report York County
Shoreline inventories divide the shorezone into three regions: 1) the immediate riparian zone, evaluated for land use; 2) the bank, evaluated for height, stability, cover and natural protection; and 3) the shoreline, describing the presence of shoreline structures for shore protection and recreational purposes.

Shoreline Situation Reports and their Application for Tidal Wetlands Management - A Demonstration Project in Westmoreland County
This project has two primary phases. The first is to conduct a second shoreline inventory of conditions existing in the county of Westmoreland, Virginia. The second phase reviews and extracts shoreline alteration projects from the VIMS Wetlands Permit Database that have been permitted between the years 2001 (first survey) and 2006. The projects will be compared with shoreline structures that have been observed and mapped between 2001 and 2006 as part of the inventories. This demonstration project is intended to determine if the combined activities of maintaining a database of construction activity and conducting shoreline surveys collects sufficient information to 1) report on resource trends over time; 2) identify violations or construction of unauthorized structures along the shoreline, 3) delineate hot spots of shoreline activity and heightened risks to ecological resources.

Shoreline Situation Reports for Selected Localities: Caroline, Stafford, and Westmoreland Counties
This project advances the development of Shoreline Situation Reports throughout the cities and localities within the Tidewater region of Virginia. Shoreline Situation Reports were first developed by VIMS in the 1970s to support coastal management activities and decisionmaking. CCI is attempting to update the series, and publish a new inventory for each city or locality. The process includes robust data collection in the field using GPS equipment, post processing of data using GIS and remote sensing tools, and the development of map inventories on a county by county basis. With funding from the Virginia Coastal Resources Management Program, three additional inventories will be added to the Virginia Shoreline Inventory shortly. The counties of Caroline and Stafford are now online and Westmoreland County will come online early 2007. GIS data for all published inventories are posted under Shoreline Situation Reports at: http://www.vims.edu/ccrm/gis/gisdata.html

The Elizabeth River Environmental Atlas
The Elizabeth River Environmental Atlas is designed to be an interactive tool that will make the existing environmental and natural resource data available to resource managers and regulatory agencies.

Tidal Wetlands Multi-Level Assessment
This includes reports, datasets and ArcIMS projects for Level I and II protocols within the Indian River, DE; Nanticoke River, MD, and York River, VA.

Verification of Existing Environmentally Sensitive Priority Zones
This project reviews and combines to separate and distinct evaluations of environmental sensitivity into a single assessment product.

Waterfront Development Tool
This project considers specific criteria in a waterfront landscape that collectively appraise the potential risk of development to sensitive aquatic resources. The protocol evaluates conditions on the landscape based on three major categories: existing land use, impacts to sensitive habitat, and potential impacts to water quality.

training

Currently Defended Shorelines – the Next CCRM Decision Tree
Training on the use of decision trees for currently defended shorelines.

Hampton Waterway Management Plan
A presentation about key issues in waterway planning and management for the City of Hampton, Virginia.

Joint Resolution Shoreline Management Study
A look at legislation and guidance for shoreline management in Virginia and surrounding states.

Living Shoreline Design and Construction Guidance
Guidance manual designed for living shoreline construction

Living Shoreline Monitoring
A presentation on the negative effects of hardening the shoreline and the need for alternative erosion protection.

Living Shorelines Website 2010 Presentation
A description of the updated CCRM Living Shorelines Website

Shoreline Management Planning and Information Sharing
A presentation describing data format and delivery preferences, valuable resources and information gaps.

Training Workshop for Virginia’s Natural Resource Managers: an Introduction to the Toolbox
This project involves design and offering of training for natural resource managers in the use of online tools developed by the Center with previous support from the EPA and other sources. The training is hands-on case studies to demonstrate application of the tools to real world problems relevant to Virginia’s coastal resource managers.

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